This from Franco Vitaliano:
A spherical scaffold of clathrin subunits forms ExQor’s patented clathrin bio-nanolaser. How can a chromophore so small (25 to 50 nm in size) serve as a cavity for visible light? ExQor says it forces chromophore-microcavity interaction, and this combination possesses a high-enough Q for lasing. In this way, the bio-nanolaser produces self-generated power in a sub-100-nm diameter structure for potential applications in illuminating and identifying (or possibly destroying) particular biological tissues by functionalizing the structure with antibodies or other agents that can target particular pathogens or even certain cells.
Heating sources include:
Heating sources, such as NIR or visible light, the magnetic field, ultrasound waves, microwaves, and radio frequency waves, are used to generate a progressive temperature rise in a specified target region, clinically known as hyperthermia.
GQDs are graphene nanoparticles with the properties of quantum dots. GQDs employ the property of photoluminescence (PL), which explains the emission of light produced by the excitation of electrons.
How are they controlled:
Controlling the size of GQDs, modifying their surface characteristics, or adding dopants like aluminum, nitrogen, or boron can change the PL excitation, emission wavelengths, and enhance different properties. For example, Lee et al. utilized benzylamine and 4,4′-(1,2-diphenylethene-1,2-diyl) diphenol (TPE-DOH) with GQDs to prevent aggregation-caused quenching. Similar to this, Wang H functionalized GQDs with nitrogen doping, increasing quantum yield up to 54% and improving photoluminescence. Moreover, Ji et al. successfully coupled GQDs with PEG to increase colloidal stability and minimize cytotoxicity. In contrast to dopants, oxygen-rich functional groups confer strong water solubility and facilitate surface conjugation, both of which are useful in biological applications. Furthermore, the presence of π-orbitals throughout the sp2-hybridized GQDs lattice improves drug delivery. Therefore, GQDs are potentially promising materials for biomedical applications.